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Covid-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

vaccine tracker
vaccine tracker COVID-19

Vaccine Development Tracker

vaccine tracker vaccine tracker

Vaccinations for those aged above 45 are currently ongoing in the country. Twelve crore people have been inoculated against the disease till Saturday. Prime Minister Narendra Modi had launched the 'Tika Utsav' on April 11 to cover maximum vaccination coverage for priority groups. The country is facing its second Covid wave, and vaccination is being scaled up on a war footing. After Covaxin and Covishield, the Sputnik V vaccine has also received approval from India for its emergency use. Developing a vaccine usually takes years of research and testing, but drugmakers worldwide defied predictions by finalising not just one vaccine in record time, but half a dozen. Here is the status of all vaccines that have been approved, some that are in human trials phase and other promising candidates in pre-clinical phases.

Data Last updated: Jan 09, 2021
 
PRE
PHASE I
PHASE II
PHASE III
RR
PHASE IV
 
Oxford-AstraZenecaUnited Kingdom
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
Pfizer US-Germany
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
ModernaUS
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
CovaxinIndia
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
NovavaxUS
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
Sputnik VRussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
Zydus CadilaIndia
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
SinovacChina
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
CanSinoChina
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
Sinopharm-Wuhan InstituteChina
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
Sinopharm-Beijing InstituteChina
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
BCG vaccineAustralia
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
CureVacGermany
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
Imperial College LondonUK
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
AnGesJapan
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
LUNAR-COV19US-Singapore
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
Johnson & JohnsonUS
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
Anhui vaccineChina
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
Soberana 1Cuba
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
EpiVacCoronaRussia
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
Institute of Medical BiologyChina
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
Inovio vaccineUS
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
GenexineSouth Korea
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
ARCoVChina
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
ReiThera vaccineItaly
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
Clover vaccineChina-US-UK
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
COVAX-19Australia
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
Medicago Canada
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
Molecular clamp vaccineAustralia
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
Kentucky BioProcessingUS
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
MedigenTaiwan
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
Sichuan vaccineChina
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
Sanofi-GSKFrance-UK
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
Merck vaccineUS-Austria
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
QazCovidKazakhstan
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
Sanofi-Translate BioFrance-US
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
NovartisSwitzerland-US
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
VaxartUS
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
CodagenixUS
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
INNA-051Australia
 
 
 
 
 
 
+
Eli LillyUS
 
 
 
 
 
 
+

Pre-Clinical Phase

Sometimes called Phase 0, this stage is conducted before any human testing can begin. The vaccine candidate is tested on cells and given to animals like monkey or mice to assess feasibility and safety. It focusses on whether the vaccine candidate produces an immune response

I - Clinical Phase

The vaccine shot is given to a small number of healthy people to evaluate safety and immune response after different doses. Usually lasts around 1-2 years, but for Covid-19 vaccines, it may take three months.

II - Clinical Phase

The vaccine is given to hundreds of volunteers split into groups depending on age and other factors. This stage further evaluates safety and ability to trigger immune response, as well as helps arrive at the right dose and schedule. Phase II trial takes around 2-3 years, but for Covid-19 vaccine, it can be wrapped up in eight months.

III - Clinical Phase

Thousands of people are given the vaccine shot and then studied for any infections versus those who were given placebos. This stage helps determine if the vaccine candidate protects against the virus and reveals any side-effects that might show up. This stage usually takes 2-4 years, but for Covid-19, many vaccine developers have clubbed it with Phase II.

Regulatory Review

Once a vaccine passes Phase III, the vaccine developer applies for a licence with the regulatory authority. The vaccine candidate continues to be monitored for safety and immunity.

IV - Clinical Phase

Monitors effectiveness of the vaccine in real-world conditions after approval. The developer continues to test the vaccine after it has been released to the public for safety, efficacy and other possible uses.

1.Oxford-AstraZenecaUnited Kingdom

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021
Indian Partner: Yes

Britain’s Oxford University and AstraZeneca have developed what scientists call a “viral vector” vaccine but a good analogy is the Trojan horse. The shots are made with a harmless cold virus that normally infects chimpanzees and carries the spike protein’s genetic material into the body. The body then produces some spike protein and primes the immune system. The two-dose shot is likely to provide protection for about a year. The vaccine was the first to be authorised for emergency use in India. Called Covishield, it is being manufactured by the Pune-based Serum Institute for India and some African nations. Serum Institute of India CEO Adar Poonawalla has said that the shot will be sold to the Indian government at Rs 200 and to the public at Rs 1,000. The vaccine data, from trials involving 23,000 volunteers, was published the prestigious medical journal, The Lancet. The study found the vaccine is safe. Severe side effects have been extremely rare. Only one patient who received the jab had a "serious side effect possibly related" to the injection, according to the data in The Lancet. The patient suffered from transverse myelitis, a rare neurological condition that causes inflammation of the the spinal cord. This provoked the temporary global shutdown of trials in early September. One of the vaccines granted conditional approval by the Indian government, it will now be administered to millions in the country.

Oxford-AstraZeneca (AZD1222 or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19)

2.Pfizer US-Germany

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

The small German biotech firm BioNTech, started by a husband and wife team with Turkish roots, had never brought a vaccine to market before. But its experimental technology has now become the first authorised for use in the Western world to help end the coronavirus pandemic. Britain, the US and Bahrain have granted emergency use authorisation to the vaccine. The vaccine programme relies on messenger RNA, genetic code that slips into human cells to make them generate antibodies that are specifically tailored to the coronavirus. Scientists acclaimed the UK news but cautioned that logistical challenges remained. The Pfizer-BioNTech jab has to be stored at around -70 degrees Celsius (-94 degrees Fahrenheit), requiring specialist freezers.

Pfizer Inc - BioNTech (BNT162)

3.ModernaUS

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

The Moderna vaccine uses an inert snippet of genetic code from the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus to trigger an immune response in the body that can repel the active virus. Moderna Inc., which has never brought a product into the market, stunned the world last year by coming up with the vaccine against the disease caused by the new coronavirus in just a few weeks. The vaccine has been shown to protect about 95 percent of people against Covid-19 compared to a placebo. Clinical trials involving tens of thousands of people each have also found no serious safety issues.The vaccine can be kept in long term storage at -20 degrees Celsius. The United States, Canada, Israel and the 27-nation European Union have already authorised or rolled out the use of the Moderna vaccine.

Moderna Inc - NIAID (mRNA-1273)

4.CovaxinIndia

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

The vaccine, called Covaxin, has been developed by Hyderabad-based Bharat Biotech in collaboration with the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and the National Institute of Virology (NIV), and is based on an inactivated form of the coronavirus. Announcing phase three results of coronavirus vaccine ‘Covaxin’, the company said on March 3 that the indigenous shots have demonstrated interim clinical efficacy of 81%. Early clinical studies had showed that the vaccine doesn’t have any serious side effects and produces antibodies for Covid-19. On March 10, an expert panel of India's central drugs authority on recommended granting emergency use authorisation to Covaxin while removing the condition for it to be administered in 'clinical trial mode', reports. The recommendations have been sent to the DCGI for consideration.

Bharat Biotech – ICMR - National Institute of Virology (BBV152 or Covaxin)

5.NovavaxUS

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021
Indian Partner: Yes

US-based Novavax’s Covid-19 vaccine candidate has shown 89.3 per cent efficacy in UK Phase-3 trial, the company said in January, 2021. The vaccine, a more conventional protein-based vaccine, had higher efficacy against the original coronavirus strain, 95.6 per cent, and 85.6 per cent against the more deadly and easily transmissible UK variant – so 89.3 per cent overall.

Novavax (NVX-CoV2373)

6.Sputnik VRussia

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

President Vladimir Putin declared Russia the first country to approve a Covid-19 vaccine and licensed the two-shot jab for domestic use in August, before any data had been published or a large-scale trial had begun. Named "Sputnik" after the pioneering 1950s Soviet satellite, the vaccine sparked concerns among Western scientists and the World Health Organization who warned that moving too quickly on a vaccine without internationally approved testing could be dangerous. The adenovirus vector-based vaccine uses modified viruses of the regular flu. Scientists gave Russia’s Sputnik V vaccine the green light in January saying it was almost 92% effective in fighting COVID-19 based on peer-reviewed late-stage trial results published in The Lancet international medical journal.

Gamaleya Research Institute (Sputnik V)

7.Zydus CadilaIndia

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

Indian vaccine-maker Zydus Cadila’s DNA-based shot targets the viral entry membrane protein of the virus. Zydus Cadila plans to release the phase III data of its Covid-19 vaccine by the end of March or early next month, reports have said. Zydus Cadila had completed the phase I and II trials in January. The firm is conducting phase III trials across 60 locations. It aims to supply 100 to 150 million doses of its Covid-19 vaccine candidate, ZyCoV-D in 2021.

Zydus Cadila (ZyCoV-D)

8.SinovacChina

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

CoronaVac, formerly called PiCoVacc, has been developed by private Chinese pharmaceutical firm Sinovac Biotech. The vaccine uses an inactivated pathogen, meaning the virus is grown in a lab and then deactivated or killed. It’s one of the so-called “inactivated” vaccine candidates developed in China. The shot has been either approved or distributed in Indonesia, the United Arab Emirates and other Arab nations. Turkey, Brazil and Chile have also signed deals to secure doses. The vaccine showed at least 78% effectiveness in final-stage clinical trials on 13,000 volunteers in Brazil. Sinovac has not yet released worldwide results from the tests, which are also being carried out in Chile and Indonesia. The company has faced criticism for not supplying full data sooner. Global Times has quoted the company as saying that the trial results may become available in March this year.

Sinovac Biotech (CoronaVac)

9.CanSinoChina

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

The ‘Trojan horse’ vaccine has been jointly developed by Hong Kong-listed CanSino Biologics and the Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, part of the Academy of Military Medical Sciences, a research unit of the Chinese military. In June, the vaccine was approved to immunise the Chinese military ahead of final testing, making it the first approved for people, albeit in a limited population. Bloomberg has reported that the vaccine has an efficacy rate of 65.7% at preventing symptomatic cases based on an analysis from late-stage trials.

CanSino Biologics - Beijing Institute of Biotechnology (Ad5-nCoV)

10.Sinopharm-Wuhan InstituteChina

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

The as yet unnamed "inactivated" vaccine is being developed by Sinopharm and the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV). The vaccine consists of virus particles, bacteria, or other pathogens that have been grown in culture and then lose disease-producing capacity. In contrast, live vaccines use pathogens that are still alive. The vaccine showed a "strong neutralising antibody response" in Phase 1 and 2 trials, according to a release from China National Biotec Group. The Phase 3 trial is currently underway in Peru, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates.

Sinopharm - Wuhan Institute of Virology

11.Sinopharm-Beijing InstituteChina

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

This is the second of Sinopharm’s two inactivated virus vaccines being tested. While the first one is in collaboration with the Wuhan Institute of Biological Products, this one is in partnership with the Beijing Institute of Biological Products. Phase 3 trials are underway in the United Arab Emirates where 5,000 volunteers are receiving the shot.

Sinopharm - Beijing Institute of Biological Products (BBIBP-CorV)

12.BCG vaccineAustralia

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

The Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine was developed in the beginning of the 20th century to treat Tuberculosis. The randomised and controlled BRACE trials by the Murdoch Children’s Research Institute aims to see whether the vaccine reduces the severity of the novel coronavirus symptoms. Researchers at the institute hope that improving people's "innate" immunity against Covid-19 symptoms would buy time to develop a specific vaccine against the disease. Similar trials are being conducted in several other countries including the Netherlands, Germany and the United Kingdom.

University of Melbourne - Murdoch Children’s Research Institute (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin live-attenuated vaccine)

13.CureVacGermany

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

CureVac is using a new technology based on mRNA, a type of genetic material never before used to make a vaccine. The process entails injecting a short sequence of viral genetic material to trigger an immune response by producing proteins acting against the virus.

CureVac (CVnCoV)

14.Imperial College LondonUK

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

While traditional vaccines are based on a weakened or modified form of the virus, the vaccine being developed by the Imperial College London is based on a new approach. It uses synthetic strands of genetic code (called RNA), based on the virus's genetic material. Once injected into muscle, the RNA self-amplifies, generating copies of itself, and instructs the body's own cells to make copies of a spiky protein found on the outside of the virus. Researchers say this should train the immune system against Covid-19. Phase I/II trials commenced on June 15 and a larger Phase III trial would be conducted later this year with around 6,000 healthy volunteers. The Imperial College London has tied up with Morningside Ventures to manufacture the vaccine through a new company called VacEquity Global Health.

Imperial College London - Morningside Ventures (Self-amplifying RNA vaccine)

15.AnGesJapan

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

Japanese biotechnology company AnGes has developed a DNA-based vaccine in partnership with Osaka University and Takara Bio. DNA vaccines are produced using an inactivated virus and can manufactured faster than protein-based vaccines. A combined Phase I/II trial is underway in Osaka University.

AnGes Inc - Osaka University - Takara Bio (AG0301-COVID19)

16.LUNAR-COV19US-Singapore

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

Like Moderna Inc’s Covid-19 vaccine candidate, Arcturus Therapeutics’ vaccine uses mRNA, or messenger RNA, to inoculate against the coronavirus. The current trial, being conducted at the Singapore General Hospital, includes two parts that will assess the vaccine’s dosing, safety and effectiveness in participants, including older adults aged between 56 and 80 years. Arcturus in April said preclinical data showed the vaccine candidate could trigger an immune response to the virus.

Arcturus Therapeutics - Duke-NUS Medical School (LUNAR-COV19)

17.Johnson & JohnsonUS

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

Johnson & Johnson on Friday said its single-dose vaccine was 72% effective in preventing COVID-19 in the United States but a lower rate of 66% was observed globally in the large trial conducted across three continents and against multiple variants. In the trial of nearly 44,000 volunteers, the level of protection against moderate and severe COVID-19 was 66% in Latin America and just 57% in South Africa, where a particularly worrying variant of the novel coronavirus is circulating.

Johnson & Johnson (Ad26.COV2-S)

18.Anhui vaccineChina

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

Chinese company Anhui Zhifei Longcom’s vaccine is a combination of viral proteins and an adjuvant that stimulates the immune system. The vaccine candidate moved to late stage trials recently. The company has partnered with the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, and has not yet revealed the trial design of the experimental vaccine.

Anhui Zhifei Longcom - Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (Adjuvant recombinant vaccine candidate)

19.Soberana 1Cuba

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

Called Soberana 01 or Sovereign 01, the vaccine’s clinical trials kicked off in Cuba in August. The company will start its Phase-III trials in March. The jab has been developed by Havana’s Finlay Institute and contains a part of the spike protein, called RBD, along with an adjuvant to boost immune response.

Finlay Vaccine Institute (Soberana 1)

20.EpiVacCoronaRussia

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

Developed by Siberia's Vector virology institute, EpiVacCorona is Russia’s second potential vaccine after Sputnik V. The vaccine contains small portions of viral proteins, known as peptides. The vaccine elicits an immune response after double administration with the interval of 14-21 days. Russia registered the vaccine on October 15.

Vector Institute (EpiVacCorona)

21.Institute of Medical BiologyChina

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

The unnamed inactivated Covid-19 vaccine candidate developed by the Institute of Medical Biology at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences entered Phase II clinical trials in June. The institute is known for inventing vaccinations against polio and hepatitis A.

Institute of Medical Biology

22.Inovio vaccineUS

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

Inovio's vaccine, called INO-4800, is designed to inject DNA into a person so as to set off a specific immune system response against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The medication is injected under the skin with a needle, then activated with a device that resembles a toothbrush, which delivers an electrical impulse for a fraction of a second, allowing the DNA to penetrate the body's cells and carry out its mission. Inovio's medication is the only DNA vaccine that is stable at room temperature for more than a year and does not need refrigeration for transport or storage for several years, its CEO has said. The company announced preliminary but encouraging results in June.

Inovio Pharmaceuticals (INO-4800)

23.GenexineSouth Korea

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

Genexine is testing a DNA vaccine candidate for Covid-19. The company began Phase 2 trials in March.

Genexine (GX-19)

24.ARCoVChina

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

The mRNA vaccine candidate jointly developed by the Chinese military’s research unit, Suzhou Abogen Biosciences and Walvax Biotechnology was officially approved for clinical trial on June 19. It was the first Covid-19 mRNA vaccine to be approved for clinical trials in China. Earlier studies on monkeys reportedly showed protective effects.

Academy of Military Medical Sciences - Suzhou Abogen Biosciences - Walvax Biotechnology (ARCoV)

25.ReiThera vaccineItaly

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

Italian biotechnology company ReiThera, Germany’s Leukocare and Belgium’s Univer cells are partnering on a vaccine based on an adenovirus that infects gorillas. Working in collaboration with the Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases in Rome, they launched Phase 1 trial at the end of July, and the company said in February its results were 'encouraging'.

ReiThera - Lazzaro Spallanzani National Institute for Infectious Diseases (GRAd-COV2)

26.Clover vaccineChina-US-UK

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

Chinese company Clover Biopharmaceuticals is collaborating with British drugmaker GSK and American company Dynavax to develop a vaccine containing a protein from coronaviruses. The vaccine candidate uses Clover's S-Trimer platform, GSK's AS03 adjuvant, and Dynavax's CpG 1018 adjuvant to stimulate the immune system. CEPI will support the manufacturing that could lead to production of millions of doses a year.

Clover Biopharmaceuticals – GSK – Dynavax (SCB-2019)

27.COVAX-19Australia

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

Australia’s Vaxine has developed a monovalent recombinant protein vaccine that combines viral proteins with an adjuvant that stimulates the immune system. Phase I trials were completed in July and Phase II trials are expected to start in September.

Vaxine Pty Ltd. (COVAX-19)

28.Medicago Canada

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

Canada-based Medicago, partly funded by cigarette maker Philip Morris, uses a species of tobacco to make vaccines. Medicago’s approach, already used in a flu vaccine awaiting Canadian approval, takes the leaves of a plant as bioreactors to produce one of the three spike proteins of the novel coronavirus, the S-spike, which can be then used in the vaccine with GSK’s adjuvant. In July, Medicago launched Phase 1 trials in combination with adjuvants from drug makers GSK and Dynavax. A single dose of Medicago’s plant-based vaccine candidate in mice yielded a positive antibody response after 10 days, according to a company release. The Phase II/II trial has begun.

Medicago – GSK – Dynavax (Plant-based adjutant Covid-19 vaccine candidate)

29.Molecular clamp vaccineAustralia

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

Researchers at the University of Queensland have developed a molecular clamp vaccine candidate for Covid-19. The vaccine delivers viral proteins altered to trigger a stronger immune response. It helps the body better recognise the protein on the virus surface. The candidate has generated a neutralising immune response, according to a press release from the university. Phase 1 trials commenced in July in which proteins were combined with an adjuvant made by CSL. If Phase I results are encouraging, CSL will advance late stage clinical trials by end of 2020. The vaccine may be available by the end of 2021, according to a joint press release.

University of Queensland – CSL (Molecular clamp vaccine)

30.Kentucky BioProcessingUS

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

Another tobacco-based vaccine being developed by Kentucky BioProcessing, an American subsidiary of the British American Tobacco. Like Medicago’s vaccine, Kentucky BioProcessing’s candidate engineers a species of tobacco called Nicotiana benthamiana to make viral proteins. The company had earlier used the technique to make an Ebola drug. Phase 1 trial was registered in July.

Kentucky BioProcessing

31.MedigenTaiwan

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

The Taiwan-based vaccine maker is developing a vaccine made with a combination of spike proteins and an adjuvant from Dynavax.

Medigen

32.Sichuan vaccineChina

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

Researchers at West China Hospital of Sichuan University announced a vaccine in July made from the RBD region of the spike protein that could protect mice and monkeys.

West China Hospital of Sichuan University

33.Sanofi-GSKFrance-UK

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

French pharmaceutical giant Sanofi is developing a vaccine with British peer GSK. The vaccine combines leading technology from both Sanofi and GlaxoSmithKline. A protein-based vaccine owned by Sanofi and used to treat influenza was paired with a GSK-developed add-on, known as an adjuvant, that boosts the recipient's immune response.

Sanofi - GSK

34.Merck vaccineUS-Austria

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

American company Merck bought Austrian vaccine maker Themis Bioscience in June to gain its vaccine project that relies on a measles vector. The vaccine was originally developed at Institut Pasteur.

Merck - Institut Pasteur (TMV-083)

35.QazCovidKazakhstan

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

Kazakhstan researchers have developed a vaccine made from inactivated coronaviruses.

Research Institute for Biological Safety Problems (QazCovid)

36.Sanofi-Translate BioFrance-US

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

French pharmaceutical giant Sanofi is developing an mRNA vaccine with US start-up Translate Bio. The companies have been working together since 2018, hoping to leverage Translate Bio's work on new messenger RNA (mRNA) drugs that cause cells to create a specific protein for treating a range of diseases. On June 23, they announced they were planning Phase I trials in the fall.

Sanofi - Translate Bio (Recombinant vaccine)

37.NovartisSwitzerland-US

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

Swiss company Novartis re-entered vaccine making in May, announcing a shot based on gene therapy treatment developed by the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital and the Gene Therapy Program at the University of Pennsylvania. The US researchers aim to insert genetic material that makes up the new coronavirus’s “spikes” into a so-called adeno-associated virus (AAV), before injecting it into humans to provoke an immune response against Covid-19.

Novartis - Massachusetts General Hospital - University of Pennsylvania (AAVCOVID)

38.VaxartUS

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

US vaccine developer Vaxart’s oral tablet contains an adenovirus that delivers coronavirus genes.

Vaxart oral vaccine

39.CodagenixUS

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021
Indian Partner: Yes

US biotech firm Codagenix Inc’s potential Covid-19 vaccine is expected to begin early-stage human trial by the end of 2020 in the UK. The Pune-based Serum Institute of India will develop Codagenix's CDX-005, which is delivered intranasally rather than via an injection.

Codagenix (CDX-005)

40.INNA-051Australia

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

Australian biotech company Ena Respiratory’s INNA-051 is not a vaccine but a nasal spray which is being developed to improve the human immune system to fight common cold and flu. On September 29, the company said the spray reduced the growth of the coronavirus in a study on ferrets by 96%, which means it can potentially be used complementary to vaccines. Ena Respiratory said it would be ready to test INNA-051 in human trials in by January-end.

Ena Respiratory (INNA-051)

41.Eli LillyUS

COVID-19 Vaccine Development Tracker

updated on: March 11, 2021

US pharmaceutical firm Eli Lilly’s antibody drug, LY-CoV555, began its ACTIV-3 trial in August. The trial compares patients who receive its antibody drug plus Gilead Sciences Inc's antiviral drug remdesivir with those who receive remdesivir alone. US President Donald Trump had touted the Lilly drug, along with the antibody treatment from Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc that he received for his Covid-19, as tantamount to a cure. But Eli Lilly and Co paused its late-stage trials on October 14 over safety concerns. Before the pause, the pharma firm was gearing up to apply for emergency use authorization for patients with mild to moderate Covid-19.

Eli Lilly (LY-CoV555)
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